Agro-virtual water trade in relation to water availability and attributes of crop import of Lungnyi Gewog, Bhutan


  • Sonam Tashi Royal University of Bhutan
  • Ugyen Dorji Royal University of Bhutan



Crops, Net Virtual Water Trade, Specific Water Demand, Virtual Water Trade, water allocation, water scarcity


Virtual Water Trade is the product of Specific Water Demand and quantity of a commodity traded in tons. The water availability, water utility patterns, attributes of agricultural products imports, and quantity of 4 selected crops traded were collected through a questionnaire survey with a systematic circular design. The Specific Water Demand of crops was collected from published FAO guidelines and data was analyzed using MS-Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The Net Virtual Water Trade was calculated using MS Excel. The study showed positive NVWT with higher virtual water export than an import for the study area. The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference between NVWT of farmers that has and that do not have enough water for agriculture t¬ (88) =3.129, p=0.002. The Pearson Chi-Square test showed no significance in the relationship between attributes of import of agri-products and availability of water resources in the Gewog; X2 (4, N=90) = 63.68, p=0.000. The study revealed a strong correlation between household size and VWI of apple and rice and VWE of apple, potato, chilli, and rice at p <0.01. However, no significant correlation was observed between household size and VWI of potato and chilli.

Author Biographies

Sonam Tashi, Royal University of Bhutan

Sonam Tashi completed his B.Sc. in Environment and Climate Studies from College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Punakha in 2020. Consecutively in 2022, under the scholarships of Naturalis, Netherlands and Royal Government of Bhutan, completed Masters of Science in Natural Resource Management, specializing in ecotoxicology from College of Natural Resources. Skilled in Mass Spectrometry, Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Biochemistry, Freshwater ecosystems, ecotoxicology and water resource management studies with strong enthusiasm in data analytics and statistics. Currently working under Support Team for Fornova, United Kingdom, a multinational Distribution and Mobility Intelligence Company, subcontracted through Pillar Tech Co Ltd.

Ugyen Dorji, Royal University of Bhutan

Ugyen Dorji is a Freshwater Ecologist with teaching and research in the field of conservation of freshwater fauna and flora. He studied MSc in Forestry with specialization in freshwater management. Proficient in handling freshwater research projects in and fluent in an array of GIS software, R, SPSS, SAS, and Microsoft packages. He is member to National Technical Working group in Bhutan for water resources management and co-founder of Water Research Bhutan. He is experienced in handling research projects and consultancies and seasoned in facilitating short course and capacity building trainings.




How to Cite

Tashi, S. ., & Dorji, U. . (2022). Agro-virtual water trade in relation to water availability and attributes of crop import of Lungnyi Gewog, Bhutan. Bhutan Journal of Research and Development, 11(2).